All motors are essentially devices used to transform different types of energy into specifically mechanical energy. There are a tremendous amount of motors on the market today, each with their distinct approach to energy conversion and specialised uses in industrial and lifestyle products.
A servo motor is just one of the motors that has enjoyed enduring popularity in the mechanics industry. It is made up of four different parts: a position-sensing device (such as a potentiometer), a DC motor, a control circuit and a gear reduction unit. All of these parts work together to allow the servo motor to receive control signals which represent the sought after output of the servo shaft. The signals power the DC motor to turn until its shaft is in the right position. The shaft in this motor has a more limited rotation than those in regular DC motors, being able to turn a maximum of 200 degrees in each direction. The rotation of the shaft is determined by the position-sensing device, thus controlling the direction in which the DC motor needs to turn in order to arrive at the correct position.
A servo motor is distinct in that it has three wire connections: one wire connects to the power source, one wire connects to the ground and one wire connects to the control. For these motors to function, power must be applied from a constant source. These motor operates by drawing the current from the power lead. Because, as we have learned, servo motors contain a built-in rotation sensor, they are a very important motor for the achievement of movement in robotic technology. A servo motor can be used to facilitate life-like movement because it skillfully transmits information concerning the degree of the rotation of the motor on its axis which allows a robot constant awareness of the positions of its appendages. As well as being used widely in robotics, these are employed extensively in the operation of remote-controlled model boats, trains, aero planes and helicopters, as well as to control the movement of real boats and aero planes.
There is no single kind of servo motor, but many different variations on this basic motor design that offer a large variety of attributes concerning strength, speed, break load, motion type, gearbox, size and weight. The demands of the industry and the budget available generally determine what will be the most appropriate type of servo motors for each application.
(ArticlesBase SC #4872848)
John k. Taylor
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